WILD BEE ID GUIDE
Buchanan, Stephen L. and Gary Paul Nabhan, The Forgotten Pollinators. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1996. Print.
Evans, Arthur V., National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Insects and Spiders of North America. New York: Sterling Publishing, 2008. Print.
Goulson, Dave. Bumblebees: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation, 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
Holm, Heather, Pollinators of Native Plants: Attract, Observe and Identify Pollinators and Beneficial Insects with Native Plants. Minnetonka, MN: Pollination Press, 2014. Print.
Marshall, Stephen A., Insects: Their Natural History and Diversity. Buffalo: Firefly Books 2006. Print.
Michener, Charles D., The Bees of the World, 2nd ed. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007. Print.
Michener, Charles D., The Social Behavior of the Bees. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974. Print.
Milne, Lorus and Margery Milne, National Audubon Society Field Guide to Insects and Spiders. New York: Knopf, 2006. Print.
Mitchell, Theodore. B., Bees of the Eastern United States, Vol. 1. Raleigh: The North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station (1960). Reprinted by Whitefish: Literary Licensing (2012). Originally published by Technical Bulletin (North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station), [vol. 1]) 141, 1-538. [Introduction, Andrenidae, Colletidae, Halictidae, Mellitidae]. Print.
Mitchell, Theodore. B., Bees of the Eastern United States, Vol. 2. Raleigh: The North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station (1960). Reprinted by Whitefish: Literary Licensing (2012). Originally published by Technical Bulletin (North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station), [vol. 2] 152, 1-557. [Megachilidae, Anthophoridae, Apidae]. Print.
Williams, Paul, Robbin Thorp, Leif Richardson & Sheila Colla, Bumble Bees of North America. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014. Print.
Wilson, Joseph S. and Olivia Messinger Carril, The Bees in Your Backyard: A Guide to North America's Bees. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016. Print.
The Xerxes Society, Attracting Native Pollinators: Protecting North America's Bees and Butterflies, Deborah Burns, ed. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing, 2010. Print.
GENERAL BEE IDENTIFICATION DATABASES:
Ascher, J. S. and J. Pickering, Discover Life Bee Species Guide and World Checklist (Apoidea - Bees, Apoid Wasps). Discover Life. 2017. Web. Nov. 5, 2018. <>
Bug Guide. Iowa State University Department of Entomology. <> This guide is an indispensable resource for bee identification in the United States. Many thanks to entomologist John S. Ascher for his tremendous help in confirming identifications of bees appearing in this website.
Packer, Laurence and Julio A. Genaro and Cory S. Sheffield, "The Bee Genera of Eastern Canada." Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification. No. 3, September 25, 2007. Web. July 14, 2015. <>
Pascarella, John B., "The Bees of Florida." Department of Entomology & Nematology Department, University of Florida. Web. May 24, 2015. <hhttp://entnemdept.ufl.edu/HallG/Melitto/floridabees/Bees_of_Florida_Part1.pdf>
WEB RESOURCES and PRINT JOURNALS CONSULTED:
“Agapostemon sericeus.” Discover Life. Web. June 21, 2015. <>
“Agapostemon sericeus and Sphecodes prosphorus.” Floral Provisioning for Pollinators. July 15, 2013. Web. June 21, 2015. < <>
“Agapostemon sericeus: Silky Agapostemon.” Bug Guide. Web. June 21, 2015. <>
"Alfalfa Leaf Cutters." United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service. Web. June 20, 2015. <>
"Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees." Manitoba Forage Seed Association. Web. June 20, 2015. >>
“Andrena barbilabris.” Bees, Wasps and Ants Recording Society. 2016. Web. April 13, 2016. <>
“Andrena barbilabris.” Nature Guide UK. Web. April 12, 2016. <>
“Andrena barbilabris.” Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society. Web. April 13, 2016. <>
“Andrena wilkella.” Bees, Wasps and Ants Recording Society. Web. June 27, 2015. <>
“Apidae – Bumblebees. " Greater Atlanta Pollinator Partnership. July 2, 2015. Web. <>
Ascher, John S., Robert G. Goelet Sarah Kornbluth, “Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) of Gardiners Island, Suffolk County, New York,” Northeastern Naturalist, Vol. 21(1) (March 2014), pp. 47-71. Print. [with particular reference to Sphecodes johnsonii]
Baker, J. R. , “Taxonomy of five Neartic subgenera of Coelioxys (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae),” The University of Kansas Science Bulletin, Volume 50, no. 12, pp. 649-730 (1975). Print.
Batra, S.W.T., "Ecology, Behavior, Pheromones, Parasites and Management of the Sympatric Vernal Bees Colletes inaequalis, C. thoracius and C. validus, Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, Vol. 53, No. 3 (July 1980), pp. 509-538.
"Bee Gallery." The Great Sunflower Project. Web. August 10, 2014. <>
"The Bee Keepers," The Boston Globe, June 23, 2013. Web. July 18, 2014. Retrieved from <>
"Beekeeping in Tennessee." University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, UT Extension Publications. Web. July 24, 2014. <>
Bee Observer Cards. Encyclopedia of Life. July 2, 2015. Web. <>
"Bees: Genus Halictus (Sweat Bees)." The Great Sunflower Project. August 26, 2015. Web. <>
"Bees of New York." The New York State Biodiversity Research Institute. August 13, 2014. Web. <>
"Best Management Practices for Pollination in Ontario Crops." NSERC-CANPOLIN Canadian Pollination Initiative. Web. June 20, 2015. <>
Biddinger, D., H. Ngugi, J. Frazier, M Fazier, E. Rajo, T. Leslie and L.R. Donovall, "Development of the Mason Bee, Osmia cornifrons, as an Alternative Pollinator to Honey Bees and as a Targeted Delivery System for Biocontrol Agents in the Management of Fire Blight," Pennsylvania Fruit News, Jan 1, 2010, Vol. 90(2), pp. 35-44.
“Blueberries,” United States Department of Agriculture. April 2, 2016. Web. <>
“Blueberry Pollinators.” North Carolina State University – A & T State University Cooperative Extension. April 2, 2016. Web. < >
"Bombus Bimaculatus." The IUCN Redlist of Threatened Species. Web. June 23, 2015. <>
"Bombus fervidus: The Yellow Bumble Bee.” Encyclopedia of Life. Web. June 23, 2015. <>
“Bombus Fervidus.” Entomology Collection, E. H. Strickland Entomological Museum, Dept. of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta. <>
"Blue Orchard Mason Bee." British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture. Web. June 16, 2015. <>
Bohart, George E., "Notes on Triepeolus remigatus (Fabricius), a 'Cuckoo Bee' Parasite of the Squash Bee, Xenoglossa strenua (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)." Pan-Pac. Ent. 42(4): 255-262. Digital Commons. Web. Jan. 3, 2016. <>
Boulanger, L.W., G.W. Wood, E. A. Osgood & C.O. Dirks, "Native Bees Associated with the Low-bush Blueberry in Maine and Eastern Canada." The University of Maine Digital Commons @ Maine. Feb. 1, 1967. Web. May 22, 2015. <>
“Bumble Bee Biographies" ("bombus bimaculatus'" and "Bombus fervidus”). Beespotter. Web. June 23, 2015. <>
"Bumble Bee Eyes" and "Bumble Bee Wings." Bumblebee.org. Web. July 21, 2014.
"Bumble Bees Decline, Other Species Persist in Northeastern USA." American Museum of Natural History. Web. May 27, 2015. <>
“Bumble Bees: the pandas of the insect world?” Polinizador's Blog. June 8, 2011. Web. July 18, 2014. <>
“Buzz Pollination.” Leonard Lab. Web. Jan 4, 2016. < > [A great recording and video of a bumble bee practicing buzz pollination can be viewed here.]
Bzdyk, “A revision of the Megachile subgenus Litomegachile Mitchell with an illustrated key and description of a new species (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae, Megachilini), " Zookeys, Issue 221, pp. 31–61 (2012). < >
Cane, Jim, "Squash Bees". U.S. Department of Agriculture. Web. August 8, 2014. <>
Cane, J. H., Griswold T., & Parker F. D. (2007). Substrates and Materials Used for Nesting by North American Osmia Bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes: Megachilidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America,Vol. 100(3), pp.350-358(2007).
Cane, J.H. and J.A. Payne. 1988. Foraging ecology of the bee Habropoda laboriosa (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae), an oligolege of blueberries (Ericaceae: Vaccinium) in the southeastern United States. Annals of the Entomologial Society of America, Vol. 81:419-427.)
Canto-Aguilar, Maria Azucena and Victor Parra-Tabla, "Importance of Conserving Alternative Pollinators: Assessing the Pollination Efficiency of the Squash Bee, Peponapis limitaris in Cucurbita moschata." Journal of Insect Conservation, Sept. 2000, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 201-208. Web. Aug. 8, 2011. Retrieved from <>
“Carpenter Bees.” United States Department of Agriculture Forestry Service. Web. July 21,2014. <>
Cockerell, T. D. A., "Some Bees of the Group Trachandrena, Robertson (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae), Annals of the Entomological Society of America, Vol. 22 (4): 754-758 (1929).
“Collecting and Identifying Bees.” Cornell University Website. Web. July 18, 2014. <>
“Confusing Bumble Bee”. Bumble Bee Watch. 2014. Web. July 20, 2014. <>
Crandall, H., and H. D. Tate. “The Bee, Calliopsis andreniformis, as a factor in alfalfa seed setting,” Journal of the American Society of Agronomy, Vol .39 (161-63) (1947), pp. 161-63. Print.
“The Confusing Long-horned Bee.” The Encyclopedia of Life. Web. July 18, 2014.
“Crop Pollination from Native Bees at Risk from Agricultural Intensification.” National Science Foundation. Web. July 23, 2014. <>
"Cuckoo Bees: Nomadinae." PBase.Com. (Tom Murray gallery). Web. June 15,20015. <>
Danforth, B.N. and K.N. Magnacca. 2002. Bees of New York State. New York State Biodiversity Clearinghouse, New York State Biodiversity Project and New York State Biodiversity Research Institute.
Davis, David R., and Wallace E. Laberge,"The nest biology of the bee Andrena (Ptilandrena) erigeniae Robertson (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae)," Illinois Natural History Survey (June, 1975). Archive.org. Web. Jan. 4, 2016. < >
Deyrup, Mark, Jayanthi Edirisinghe and Beth Norden, “The diversity and floral hosts of bees at the Archbold Biological Station, Florida (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), Insecta Mundi, Vol. 16, No. 1-3 (March-Sept. 2002):. 87-120. [regarding Say’s Leafcutters & their prey].
Droege, Sam, “Andrenidae, Colletidae, Melittidae: A Guide to Their Identification in Eastern North America.” Dec. 9, 2008. Web. June 26, 2015. <>
Droege, Sam, "Guide to the Bee Genera within Apidae of Eastern North America." Parts I and II. <> and
Droege, Sam, “Identification Guide to the Megachilidae Genera of Eastern North America”. Jan. 8, 2009. Web. June 26, 2015. <>
Droege, Sam, “Osmia Georgica”. United States Geological Survey Bee Inventory and Monitoring Lab. Web. June 16, 2016. <https://www.flickr.com/photos/usgsbiml/26392252245/>
Dyer, J.G., and A. F. Shinn, “Pollen collected by Calliopsis andreniformis Smith in North America (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae), Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, Vol. 51 (1978), pp. 787-795. Print.
Eickwort, George C., “Aspects of the Nesting Biology and Descriptions of Immature Stages of Perdita octomaculata and P. halictoides (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae),” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, Vol. 50, No. 4 (Oct., 1977), pp. 577-599.
Eickwort, George C., Robert W. Matthews and James Carpenter, "Observations on the Nesting Behavior of Megachile rubi and M. texana with a Discussion of the Significance of Soil Nesting in the Evolution of Megachilid Bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, Vol. 54, No. 3 (July 1981), pp. 557-570. Print.
Gardner, K.E., and J. S. Ascher. "Notes on the native bee pollinators in New York apple orchards." Journal of the New York Entomological Society. Vol. 114(1-2): 86-91 (2006). Print.
Garvey, Kathy K., "Wool Carder Bees Not the Terrorists Some Think." Farm Press Daily. Jan. 31, 2012. Web. July 23, 2014. <>
"Giant Resin Bee." Encyclopedia of Life. Aug. 6, 2014. Web. <>
Giles, Valerie and John S. Ascher, "A Survey of the Bees of the Black Rock Forest Preserve, New York (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), Journal of Hymenoptera Research, Vol. 15(2) (2006), pp. 208-231. Print.
Goldman, Jason G., "Bees Living in Cities Are Building Their Homes with Plastic." Scientific American. June 1, 2014. Web. July 21, 2015. <>
Goodell, Karen, “Food availability affects Osmia pumila (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) foraging, reproduction, and brood parasitism.” Oecologia, Vol. 134, No. 4 (March, 2000), pp. 518-527. Print.
Graenicher, S, “The Relations of the Andrenine Bees to the Entomophilous Flora of Milwaukee County,” Entomological News. 1904, p. 64. Retrieved at website of University of Wisconsin-Madison Library. April 23, 2016. <>
Grahm, Jason R., Jamie Ellis, Glenn Hall and Catherine Zettel Nalen, “Anthophora abrupta Say.” University of Florida, Department of Entomology and Nemotology. June 23, 2016. Web. <
Greenleaf, Sarah S. and Claire Kremen, "Wild bees Enhance Honey Bees' Pollination of Hybrid Sunflower," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 103, No. 37 (August 9, 2014). Web. <>
“Guide to Minnesota Bumble Bees.” Bee Lab. University of Minnesota. July 2,2015. Web. >
“Halictidae.” Website of Jason Gibbs. Web. June 21, 2015. [Information on Agapostemon Sericeus] <>
Hefetz, Abraham, George C. Eickwort, Murray S. Blum, James Cane and George E. Bohart, “A comparative study of the exocrine products of cleptoparasitic bees (Holcopasites) and their hosts (Calliopsis) (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae, Andrenidae), Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 8, Issue 11 (Nov. 1982), pp. 1389-1397. [Print]
Hogendoorn, Katja and Remko Leys, "Life-cycle of Halictus rubicundus Christ (Hymenoptera Halictidae) in the Netherlands: Two Populations," Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. Vol. 70, No. 4 (1997), pp. 347-352. Print.
“Holandrena,” The Bees of Florida. University of Florida - Gainesville, Department of Entomology and Nematology. May 15, 2017. [Excellent key for Cresson's Andrena] <http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/HallG/Melitto/floridabees/holandrena.htm>
Holland, Jennifer S., "Gold Dusters." National Geographic. March, 2011. Web. August 21, 2014.
Holland, Jennifer S. "The Plight of the Honey Bee." National Geographic. May 10, 2013. Web. August 21, 2014. <>
"Honey Bee Stealing Pollen from Native Bee." Online video clip. "Honey Bees (Apis mellifera"). Wildscreen Arkive. Web. Accessed Oct. 28, 2016. <> [showing a British honey bee robbing an unidentified wild bee pollinating a impatiens-like flower]
Humphrey, Stephen, ”Leafcutter bee (Megachile relativa) builds a brood cell” [video], part of series titled “Odes to Solitary Bees.” Resonating Bodies. August 14, 2010. Web. July 5, 2017. <>
Ingber, Sasha, "As Honey Bees Die Off, First Inventory of Wild Bees Is Underway." National Geographic, July 11, 2014. Web. August 21, 2014. <>
Isaacs, Rufus and Julianna Tuell, "Conserving Bees on Native Farmland." Michigan State University Extension Bulletin E-2985. May, 2007. Web. July 17, 2014. <>
Johnson, M. D. 1986. “Stelis lateralis reared from a nest of Osmia pumila” (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, Vol. 59 (1986), pp. 743-745. Print.
“Key to Green Halictid Diversity.” University of Virginia. Web. June 21, 2015. <>
Knerer, Gerd and Patricia MacKay, "Bionomic notes on the solitary Evylaeus oenotherae (Stevens)” (Hymenoptera: Halictinae), a matinal summer bee visiting cultivated Onagraceae, Canadian Journal of Zoology, 1969, Vol. 47, No. 3 (1969), pp. 289-294. [Regarding Lasioglossum oenotherae]. Print.
Kondo, Takumasa, Michael L. Williams, and Robert Minckley, “Giant Resin Bees! Exotic Bee Species Makes Its Way from East Coast to Alabama." Highlights of Agricultural Research, Vol. 47, No. 3, fall 2000. Web. July 15, 2015. <>
Krombein, Karl, "Another note on the nesting habits of Megachile texana Cresson," Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, Vol. 55, pp. 84-85 (1970). Print.
Krombein, Karl V, Trap-nesting Wasps and Bees: Life Histories, Nests and Associates. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Press, 1967, p. 264-269. Print. [about nesting behavior of leafcutter bees]
"Kudzu." National Park Service. August 6, 2014. <>
“Leafcutter Bees.” Colorado State University Extension. Web. July 20, 2014. <>
LaBerge, Wallace E., "A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the western hemisphere. Part VI. Subgenus Trachandrena." Transactions of the American Entomological Society, Vol. 99:235-37 (1973). Print
LaBerge, Wallace E., "Andrena (Holandrena) cressonii Robertson," from "A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere. Part XI. Minor subgenera and subgeneric key. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, Vol. 111: 441-567 (1986) [A. cressonii at 523-538]. Print.
Mangum, Wyatt & S. Bambara, "Giant Resin Bee." North Carolina State University Cooperative Extension. August 6, 2014. WEB. <>
Matteson, Kevin C., “A Pictorial Guide to Common Bees of the New York City Metropolitan Area.” Great Pollinator Project. Web. July 18, 2014. <>
Matteson, Kevin C. and Gail A. Langellotto, "Bumble Bee Abundance in New York City Community Gardens," Cities and the Environment, Vol. II, Issue 3, Article No. 5 (2009). Digital reprint. Digital Commons. May 27, 2015. <>
Medler, J.T., “Biology of Osmia in trap nests in Wisconsin.” Annals of the Entomological Society of America, Vol 60, No. 2 (1967), pp. 338-344. Print.
Medler, J.T., "A Note on Megachile (Sayapis) pugnata pugnata Say in Trap-nests in Wisconsin (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), The Canadian Entomologist,Vol. 96. No. 6 (June 1964), pp. 918-921. Print.
Medler, J. T. and T. W. Koerber, “Biology of Megachile Relativa Cresson (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae) in Trap-Nests in Wisconsin,” Annals of the Entomological Society of America, Volume 51, Issue 4 (1958), pp. 337-344. Print.
“Megachile capanulae,” Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification. Web July 23, 2015. <>
“Megachile relativa,” E. H. Strickland Entomological Museum of the University of Alberta, Canada. 2001-2017. Web. July 5, 2017. < >
Miliczky, E. R. and E. A. Osgood, “Bionomics of Andrena (Melandrena) vicina Smith in Maine and Washington, with New Parasite Records for A. (M.) regularis Malloch and a Review of Melandrena Biology, Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, Vol. 68, No. 1 (Jan., 1995), pp. 51-66. Print.
Miller, Shane R., Robert Gaebel, Randall J. Mitchell and Mark Arduser, “Occurrence of Two Species of Old World Bees, Anthidium Manicatum and A. Obligatum (Apoidea Megachildae), in Northern Ohio and Southern Michigan,” The Great Lakes Entomologist (2002). University of Akron, Department of Biology. Web. July 25, 2015. <20et%20al%202002.pdf>
Mitchell, Theodore B., “New Species of Sphecodes from the Eastern United States, Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, Vol. 72, No. 2 (November 1956), pp. 206-222.
Moisset, Beatriz, Photographic illustration of bee face and wing venation of Augochlora pura sweat bee. Bugguide.net. Web. August 22, 2015. <bugguide.net/node/ view/79292.>
Moisset, Beatriz & Stephen Buchmann, "Bee Basics: An Introduction to Our Native Bees." United States Department of Agriculture. Web. August 15, 2014. <>
Moisset, Beatriz, and Vicki Wojcik, “The Pure Golden-Green Sweat Bee.” United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Web. August 23, 2015. < >
Mueller, Ulrich G., George C. Eickwort and Charles F. Aquadro, “Evolution DNA fingerprinting analysis of parent-offspring conflict in a bee [Augochlorella striata]." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 91, pp. 5143-5147 (May 1994). Retrieved from website of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Web. August 19, 2015. <>
“Native Bees Are Big Part of Maine’s Blueberry Pollination Plans.” Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners’ Association. Web Jan. 1, 2016. <>
"Native Bee Pollination of Hybrid Sunflowers." Xerxes Society. Web. August 13, 2014.
"Neighborly Andrena." Nature Search, Fontanelle Forest of Omaha, Nebraska. Web. May 22, 2016. <>
Neff, John L. and Beryl B. Simpson, "Vibratile Pollen-Harvesting by Megachile Mendica Cresson," Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, Vol. 61, No. 2 (1988), pp. 242-244. Print.
Nye, William P. and J. LaMar Anderson, "Insect Pollinator Frequenting Strawberry Blossoms and the Effect of Honey Bees on Yield and Fruit Quality," Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, Vol. 99, No.1, January 1974. Utah State University. Digital Commons @ USU. Web. July 17, 2014. <>
Osgood, Eben A., “Biology of Andrena crataegi Robertson (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae), a communally nesting bee.” Journal of the New York Entomological Society, Vol. 97,No. 1 (1989), pp. 56-64. Print.
Parker, Frank D. and George E. Bohart, Dolichostelis, a New Genus of Parasitic Bees.” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, Vol. 52, No. 1 ( Jan., 1979)., pp. 138-153. Print.
Pascarella, John B., "The Bees of Florida" ("Andrenidae" ). Department of Entomology & Nematology, University of Florida. Web. May 24, 2015. <>
Pascarella, John B., "The Bees of Florida" ("Tribe Anthidini - Genus Stelis Panzer, 5 taxa"). Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida. Web. July 23, 2015. <> [re: Stelis louisae cuckoo bees]
Pascarella, John B., "The Bees of Florida" ("Subfamily Megachilini -- Genus Coelioxys Latreille, 17 taxa”). Department of Entomology & Nematology, University of Florida. Web. September 10, 2017. < > [Provides a useful key for Coelioxys bees].
Pascarella, John. B., “Foraging patterns of the southeastern blueberry bee Habropoda laboriosa (Apidae, Hymenoptera): Implications for understanding oligolecty,” Journal of Apicultural Research, 2007, Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 19-27. Print.
Pennsylvania Native Bee Survey, Pennsylvania Native Bee Survey, Citizen Scientist Pollinator Monitoring Guide. Web. July 20, 2014. <>
Pierson, Kim, Vincent J. Tepedino, Sedonia Sipes and Kim Kuta, “Pollination Ecology of the Rare Orchid, Spiranthes diluvialis: Implications for Conservation.” United States Department of Agriculture. August 30, 2015. Web. <> [re: information on Anthophora terminalis digger bees]
“Pollination: Other Pollinating Bees.” The University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. Web. Jan 4, 2016. <>
"Pollinator Biology and Habitat," NRCS Michigan Technical Note No. 201, April, 2013 (rev. 2014). National Resources Conservation Service. Web. June 19, 2014. <>
Preston, Elizabeth, "Urban Bees Build Their Nests with Plastic." Discover Magazine. Feb. 8, 2014. Web. July 21, 2015. <>
Rank, G.H. and D. W. Goerzen, "Native Leafcutter Bee Species and Associated Parasites in Commercial Hives in Saskatchewan, Canada," Apidologie, Springer Verlag, Volume 12, Issue 3 (1982), pp. 211-220. Print.
Rau, Phil,“The biology and behavior of mining bees, Anthophora abrupta and Entechnia taurea.” Psyche, Vol. 36 (1929), pp. 155-181.
Rehan, Sandra M. and Miriam H. Richards, "Nesting Biology and Subsociality in Ceratina calcarata." The Candian Entomologist, Jan, 2010. Bioone.org. Web. June 7, 2015. <>
Roberts, Jean P., “Quantifying a Rare Event: Pollen Theft by Honey Bees from Bumble Bees and Other Bees (Apoidea: Apidae, Megachilidae) Foraging at Flowers,” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, Vol. 78, No. 2 (April 2005), pp. 172-175.
Robertson, Charles, “Phenology of Inquiline and Nest-Making Bees, Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Vol. 33, Issue 4-5 (August-October, 1926), pp. 116-120. Print. [re: Epeolus bifasciatus]
Rohan E. B., "Honey Bee Stealing Pollen from a Sweat Bee." Online video clip. You Tube. June 24, 2016. Web. Accessed October 28, 2016. <> [showing a honey bee robbing a ligated sweat bee pollinating a sunflower]
Rosenthal, Susan, “Buzz Pollination.” Bay Nature. June 11, 2008. Web. Jan 4, 2016. < >
Rowson, Rhian and Mark Pavett, “a Visual Guide for the Identification of British Coelioxys.” Amateur
Entomologists' Society. Web. September 9, 2017. <>
Rozen, Jr., Jerome G., and Marjorie S. Favreau, “Biological Notes on Colletes compactus compactus and Its Cuckoo Bee, Epeolus pusillus (Hymenoptera: Colletidae and Anthophoridae),” Journal of the New York Entomological Society, Vol. 76, No. 2 (June 1968), pp. 106-111. Print.
Sampson, Blair J., Robert G. Danka and Stephen J. Stringer, “Nectar Robbery by Bees Xylocopa virginica and Apis mellifera Contributes to the Pollination of Rabbiteye Blueberry,” Journal of Economic Entomology (June 2004), Vol. 97, Issue 3, (June 2004), pp. 735- 740. Print. Retrievable from Research Gate at: <>
Schrader, Martha Northam and Wallace E. LaBerge, “The Nest Biology of the Bees Andrena (Melandrena) regularis Malloch and Andrena (Melandrena) carlini Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). Urbana :State of Illinois, Dept. of Registration and Education, Natural History Survey Division,1978.
Sheffield, Cory S., Claudia Ratti, Laurence Packer and Terry Griswold, “Leafcutter and Mason Bees of the Genus Megachile Latreille (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Canada and Alaska." Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification, No. 18 (November 2011). Print.
Shinn, A. F., "A revision of the bee genus Calliopsis and the biology and ecology of C. andreniformis (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae). University of Kansas Science Bulletin, Vol. 46 (1967), pp. 753-936. Print.
Snelling, Roy R., "Studies on North American Bees of the Genus Hylaeus. The Subgenera Hylaeus S. Str. and Paraprosopis (Hymenoptera: Colletidae), Contributions in Science, No. 180 (1970). Print.
“Solitary Bees: Mason Bees. Growers of bee-pollinated crops, particularly apples, may be interested in the possible use of solitary and wild bees as pollinators.” Penn State Extension, Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences. March 30, 2016. Web.
“Specialist Bee Plants.” The Great Pollinator Project. Web. Jan. 4, 2016. <> [About spring beauty]
“Sphecodes Bees.” The Great Sunflower Project. Web. Sept. 6, 2016. Web. < >
Stanley, Tim, "Native Beeology." Web. September 25, 2017. <> [Recommended informative website about native bees in New York.]
“Subgenus Litomegachile Mitchell, 3 Species,” “Key to Females of Litomegachile,” and “Key to Males of Litomegachile.” Florida Bees. Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida. Web. Jan. 5, 2015. <>
"Subgenus Melanosmia." Palaearctic Osmiine Bees. 2013 Web. October 16, 2017. <>
Tepedino, V. J., and Frohlich D. R. "Mortality Factors, Pollen Utilization, and Sex Ratio in Megachile Pugnata Say (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a Candidate for Commercial Sunflower Pollination." Journal of the New York Entomological Society, Vol. 90. No. 4 (1982): 269-74. Print.
"Triepeolus remigatus." Discover Life. Web. Jan 3, 2016. <> [noting host species of cuckoo bee].
“Unraveling the Pollinating Secrets of a Bee’s Buzz,” The New York Times. July 13, 2013. Web. Jan 4, 2016. <>
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